Sunday, 30 September 2012



These are the people who have set an honest, true example of true personal preparations of death. While we are living we should be aware that one day we are going to die. Therefore, a wise, responsible person should be prepared for your burial sight, and costs of ceremonies. This is the true interpretations of preparations of death as spelt out in the Khuran and the Bible.(coffins,oils,clothes transports costs,Food,Tomb)and others have to be prepared by oneself before you die. HAVE YOU PREPARED THESE THINGS FOR YOUR DECENT BURIAL CEREMONY? If not start now because one day you are going to die without doubt. It is a personal preparation. KAMUZU BANDA WAS NOT PREPARED FOR HIS BURIAL CEREMONY. Black Jesus Christ was not prepared for his burial ceremony. Many have failed to prepare for their deaths. Nobody has defeated death. One day you are going to die. If someone can destroy and defeat death today, such preparations would stop immediately. The one to succeed in the removal of death would be worshiped as king of kings, and whatever he asks from us shall be done to him. Up to now no name or person has defeated death trap. If we see anyone crowning anyone to have defeated death is a deceiver at its best as mentioned on Mathews 27v64 in the Bible.Even Jesus has never defeated death.So it is an illusion to crown Jesus to have conquered death yet death is winning the war. The money you pay to the churches and mosques is there to keep safe so that when you die all the necessary things for your burial ceremony has to be carried out by that mosque or church. If that church and mosque fails to carry out such noble service, that is advanced theft at the highest degree. Kings and elders have the power to force these churches and mosques to releases these contributed money for the death of an individual member. Mafia business should not be allowed under pretext of accepting Jesus and Mohammed peace is upon them. Crooks have hijacked the basic ancestral worshipping for their own personal benefits.
By Bishop G Mlalazi

Friday, 28 September 2012


1-All the present magnificent buildings, structures like obelisks, white hosue, china buildings, Olympus of Greece and more are copies of Black Egyptian Civilizations.
2-Pythagorous Theorems can best be called Pharaonic Black Theorems because the Black Pharaohs had built Pyramids using advanced mathematical knowledge.
3-Religions.Blacks is authors’ of all the religions of the world:-Christianity, Islam, Buddism, Hinduism and many more. Black people wrote the original Bible. Jesus Christ was a black Person and all the races of the world are scrambling for such a super intelligent character embedded in black people to be their own. In fact black Jesus is a symbol of black people resistance against white racism and their oppressive, barbaric characteristics. The people like Nelson Mandela, Martin Luther King Junior, and Marcus Garvey, The Mau Mau of Kenya .John Chilembwe of Malawi, Black Julius Caesar, Black Hannibal are in such category. Since Jesus was a black person, therefore the entire race are benefitting and worshipping black people’s intelligence.
4-The Messiah the world is waiting is in one of the Prisons in USA, Britain, Israel and Australia. It is like black Joseph who was imprisoned by black Pharaoh but after interpreting Pharaoh’s dream he was given the authority to govern Egypt. Note all these prisons will be turned into charitable places; every boy will be freed because the Justice System now is crippled and obsolete. That will be the beginning of a new world order.
5-No one has defeated death. Even Jesus has never defeated death. Crowning Jesus to be the conqueror of death is a symbol of erased Sense of Judgment because the people are dying everyday. Death is around .Deceivers are caught red handed here.

 The people are walking in a file. One arm of each person is touching the back of one of each while all but one in front closes their eyes. I.e. The one at the front is the only person walking while seeing in zigzag manner. They sing a song led by the one at the front.

 Front Person     :|”Kalondolondo”
All                           :  “Kaya”    ,”Tafika sono?”
Front                     : ”Yayi Tichali munthowa”.

1-The song is repeated,repeated,repeated,repeated until the the at say ,”Enya Tafika”.The stoppage might be at the wrong place or at the right place. Is when you open the eyes. If you have been made to open at the wrong place, that where laughter and happiness comes.
This traditional game is similar to the present Christian and Islamic religion. Jesus is coming in the next hour, yet years are coming and going.

2-It’s like Game of punishing young ones who remain standing while elders are sitting. Standing while elders are seated is a sign of disrespect to elders. To punish you, they command you:-“Go to nearby village and bring KAIMAIMA (means STANDING).When you reach that village the people they would tell you that,KAIMAIMA was here but he has just departed to the next village across the river. That person goes to far away distance as a punishment. Children have been known to have been killed in the process without trace. This is similar to the present Christianity and Islam. Shifting goal posts. Jesus is coming in the next hour, yet years are coming and going.
3-It’s like a legend story that the Great King wanted a husband for his daughter who has a story to last thousands and thousands of years. One poorest, scorned, rejected person of a society won the competition. To tell you this, hire me to your land. You will enjoy it.
By           :Bishop G.Malazi
For more information ,contribution and membership email us

Thursday, 27 September 2012


The economic system being implemented before and during colonial eras was aimed at systemically; destroying the fabric of Native Societies. The Native Societies structures are Native Kings, their charismatic, native elders and citizens. This form the bulk of domestic majority, reference bases (foundations) of real governments. The land, the waters, trees, minerals, the wild animals belong to these native people. The Native people have the right to economic fare share of 40% of profit for any business operating in these environments. The disappearance or accountability 0f this 40% share has led to destruction of the environments like in Ogoni Land in Nigeria, Mining sector in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Australia, Brazil and other third world counties, Social destruction of Native people;-poor housing, endemic diseases, poor dressing, cultivated hunger, enhanced death rate, injustices, and apartheid.  The deliberate policies to bypass, steal and withhold the 40% native share is speeding the doomsday for native people. This is ethnic native Cleansing using advanced criminal activity. We want this 40% now to manage survivals of native people. This can be traced since slavery, before colonial and after colonial days. Native people are not supposed to beg their own share, but it has to be given to them without any discussion like Oil mining in Nigeria, Congo, Malawi.Kayelekela Mines, and South African mine. This fare share should be as follows:

NATIVE PEOPLE’S SHARE                                   =40% OF PROFIT.
COMPANIES ENGAGED (foreign)                       =40% OF PROFIT.
BROKERS (THE IMAGINALY GVT)                      =15%  OF PROFIT.
LABOUR COSTS                                                 =5%    OF PROFIT.

This is the universal fare share, which should be applied anywhere in the world. So whatever international business agreement s the artificial gvts make, they should be aware that 40% share should go in the Native Peoples Account. Money collected in the churches, Mosques 40% share should go to Native Account for Native Social development.

Compiled by       Bishop G.Malalazi
Feedback and to join this movement email us. Pass this message to others.

Tuesday, 25 September 2012


Black Jesus did not do that.He was an ans central worshiper like our forefathers had been doing.He was constantly calling the spirit of his father,the dead King Herod.He was again visited by the spirit of Moses and Enock when Jesus was transfigured at the mountain.
If u heart has been  been touched .register your name by email .We will visit you in due course.
By Bishop G Mlalazi

Sunday, 23 September 2012


In Malawi, Central Africa around the Lake of Stars there are several divine Native Shrines where all people should go and be spiritually purified. Such Places are:- The Mulanje Mountain, Zomba Moutain Khuluvi in Lower Shire,Dzalanyama Ranges,South Rukulu River,Nyika Plateau,The Lake Malawi,Ngala yapakamwa,Bunda Moutain ,Hora Mountain s and many more places where the dead are being buried. There are many fascinating stories after completion of the pilgrimages to such place. Tourists have vanished into thin air especially in Mulanje Mountain. This is the original religion which Native people have to follow even Black Jesus was preaching the same Religion when he was transfigured on the mountain. Jesus was an ancestral worshipper the way our forefathers were doing. The Jews who were black people were and are still sour beer takers. Even Black Jesus was drinking this beer as exemplified at Canna of Galilea. Because the sour beer had finished the people asked Jesus to brew a lighter beer called wine. Human sweat and God Love Beer came into the world. Jesus had love for women. He asked the Samarian woman water. When she brought the water drawn from a well, Jesus refused and advised the woman that he had the water of life which overflows from the bottom of the heart. That is courtship in our tradition. Water of life in our tradition is sperm liquid. Refer again to Martha and Mary in the rest houses Jesus and his entourages were renting. Refer again to the woman who was oiling Jesus feet with expensive oil using her hair. Such actions by a woman symbolize love affairs at best. In the books of James, Maria Magdalene and Mary his mother, clearly shows that Jesus was married to Marry Magdalena   and had four children. We are saying this because Jesus was our brother .He was a black man and was brought up in black people’s traditions, cultures and religions. Jews are black people. Only black, have the keys of Jesus. More than 70 times, Jesus said he was the son of man and not God. But soon after he was borne he was declared the king of the Jews and even the Maggie’s carried the gifts suitable for a king. At the cross, they wrote THIS IS THE TRUE KING OF THE JEWS. If we apply black traditions and cultures, one would no doubt conclude that Jesus was the son of man as he often said but that man was a king, and that king when he was borne was King Herod.The biological father of Jesus was King Herod. If one masters black people’s traditions, cultures, and religion one would troubleshoot any complex problems in the world. You know the Bible; there are only two verses which summarizes the bible:-The Bible is divided into two parts. The New Testament and the Old Testament. One  verse is unveiling the New Testament: Mathews 27-64 which states that :COMMAND THAT THE TOMB WHERE JESUS WAS BURIED BE MADE SECURE,LEST THE DISCIPLES COME BY NIGHT AND STEAL HIM AND SAY TO THE PEOPLE THAT HE HAS RISEN FROM THE DEAD: SO THE LAST ERROR OR DECEPTION SHALL BE WOSRE THAN THE FIRST. So whatever people are talking about Jesus now is the last error or deception which is worse than the first.
In the Old Testament God said: “Let us make man in our own image”. God was speaking to Lucifar, Gabiel and other 12 Angels.Lucifar was the best crafts man who designed a human and collected clay soil to build a man .God breathed life into that man. Therefore, our image resembles Lucifer, God and the Angels. If we despise one of them, we are actually despising ourselves. It is madness to run away from your shadow or despise your shadow. That is the situation we are now. There is a conspiracy of deceivers to plant characters that are in the New Testament to take the place of characters in the Old Testament like a chase game.  The most notable one is the removal of Lucifer in the creation to be replaced by Jesus who is in the New Testament yet the trinity was set up in 325 AD at Council of Nicaea in Turkey where Constantine decried should be worshipped like god. Jesus was just black ordinary person fighting against the Roman Colonialisn.He was later followed by the Arabic Mohammed fighting against the Roman Colonialism.
Black Culture, tradition, religion, law is just and supreme let us revive and uphold them because they will save human race.

Compiled by:     Bishop G,Mlalazi
For registration and support Email us.

Saturday, 22 September 2012


In Malawi, on Shores of Lake Malawi (Lake of stars), we have rich cultures, traditions and religions which have survived savage onslaught by foreign religions. Foreign Missionaries have branded them Paganism, Satanism and all sorts of names to make them fit to be abandoned by native people and adopt their religion and way of life. Many complied for almost 200 years now. This abandonment has brought about more harm than good and has brought about the disintegration and misery of native societies. This is why; it is becoming very difficult to take care of orphans. In the past, one could not notice the difference between an orphan and those children who had their living parents. Great Respect should go to such great people who were architect of such sustainable human survival system. Among them were great authors and narrators of legend stories. Fireside stories which grand mothers and fathers used to recount to their grand children in order to plant wisdom into their minds. After they had grown up, their behavior had been fine tuned to suits the needs of the overall native societies .We are looking that time with nostalgia and that time is being reborn. That is the duty of each one of us now to write and submit such legends stories to (Global Original Heritage Revival and Defense).Your friends have done, now is your turn:-
THE PLIGHT OF AN ORPHAN(Respect to Great BLACK Authors-was being narrated to us by my Mother Rosebel Nkosi who is still living in her 70 years)
Once upon a time Saukani‘s mother died while she was less than threes years. She was later being taken care of his father who later died also. The group of elders decided to put Saukani under the custody of his step father and mother. The couple had a daughter, almost the same age to Saukani. Her name was Chapasi. The two developed a strong relation ship but their parents were not happy with the presence of Saukani in their family! What ever shores which were assigned, they were doing together. Collecting firewood, water, washing plates, and clothes, pounding maize and many more. The two authored a binding song which was being sung even asleep. In that song there was a message that one of them cannot do something without the presence of the other. Many people admired them and acted as examples to other children.
 The major problem to Saukani was that she was an orphan and was not wanted by her step parents. They cooked a plan to get rid of Saukani without the knowledge of Chapasi and the society.They new that wherever Saukani was, Chapasi was there also. They dug out a hole in the kitchen, down the spot where they were cooking food, enough to accommodate a person. One day those parents took two buckets .Many holes were drilled through the bottom of one bucket .The other one had no holes. The one with no hole was given to Saukani. The Other one with holes was given to Chapasi their real daughter. “Go our daughters and draw water from the river which was about 1km away”. They commanded. " Never come back without water and come back as soon as possible.” They emphasized. They went as commanded .At the river Saukani drew water and her bucket was not leaking. Chapasi drew water but her bucket was leaking.Chapasi tried several times to draw water but she could not make it home because, her bucket was leaking. Her clothes were wet with water .She tried the whole day but did not manage to rich home with water .Saukani had gone already with water. After the sun set, angry and tired Chapasi went home with no water. She was hesitant to reach home but her parent welcomed and comforted her.”Where is Saukani”.She asked.”We know that you were together drawing water from the river .We are supposed to ask you first, the where abouts of your dear friend, Saukani.” They reasoned.  “She came home, early in the morning because her bucket was not leaking out water.” She explained. Where is she now?” they questioned. They alerted the society to help them look for Saukani but weeks and months passed, she was not found. They certified her dead and did traditional funeral ceremonies to mark the end of her presence in the society. What the society and Chapasi did not know was that her arms and legs were tied with a strong rope and she was hidden under the floor on which they were cooking food on daily basis. Years passed but  Saukani was surviving on the soil.Her body was gaunt ,her hair grew longer than her body like the hair of a Rasta man(Bob Marley, Burning Spear,Luky Dube.etc).Years later,Both Chapasi and Saukani were struck by grief. Both remembered the song which had banded them.  One day  Chapasi was pounding maize floor at the compound, while accompanying the song. The vibration and the song penetrated the ground and reached the hole of Saukani under the furnace. Saukani answered the song as they had used to do during their old days.When Chapasi had stopped  pounding in between intervals, she was hearing the song voice was that of Saukani ,but she did not know from which direction and place that voice was coming………………………………………………….etc (bye for now.We will continue from here next time.Compare this moving legends story with THE FATE OF IKEMEFUNA IN CHUNUA ACHEBES BOOK TITLED THINGS FALL APART.Compare again the story of BLACK  JOSEPH ,HOW HE WAS SOLD TO BLACK PHARAOH PORTPHER IN EGYPT  extracted from old Testament Bible which was authered by black people.The power of wisdon will heal the world like Black King Solomon.Blacks have the responsibility to stop barbaric,warlike tendencies of other races as it is today in the middle east and else where.Note God will always side with the oppressed.
By Bishop G,Mlalazi
For donations, email us for registrations and instruction. This is possible because of the support from your friends. You can do the same for  the destiny of our children.

Tuesday, 18 September 2012


A race without culture and tradition is denied sense of judgment. If the race doesn’t have sense of judgment, it cannot have the power to diagnose a problem. If it fails to diagnose a problem, it is easily misled and one problem missed breeds the other.  We are in that situation now. Myself and some people of Malawi, Central Africa (The Khemet) at the banks of Lake of Stars ,our sense of judgment is intact because we are cultured people like Black Jesus (Christ=Light).With this in mind, let look at :-

A             Abraham and Sarah did not have a child for almost 100 years, and were longing for one. Unexpectedly, Isaac was borne and the family was happy. In our culture and tradition, if the family takes long to bear a child you become the centre of derisions and become the outcast of the societies. To avert this, that family tries its best to one child in whatever means, the sooner the better for them. One of the means is; they seek help from traditional medicine men; they measure their strength by sleeping with others outside the family as Abraham did with Hagar. It is better at this point to note that even Sara was doing the same; thirdly a group of elders arrange a (fisi= a hyena) .A known fertile, hired man to sleep with a woman. He is called a hyena because he secretly does his duties at night. Only a woman and few people in the community know this arrangement. When the woman conceives, that family becomes happy because of that child. So, our friend Isaac was borne in that circumstance. Dynamics of black cultures and traditions. So if you have such problems, you are welcome to visit Malawi, the warm heart of Africa and be given that service.

B             One day when I was listening to Nkhotakota Community Radio Station on the shores of Lake Malawi, God and Abraham had agreed to kill a beautiful only son, Isaac as offering to God .Isaac was not aware of these sinister minds. On the way between   home and the mountain where the altar was built, Satan visited Abraham and advised him not to do such a heinous act against Isaac. Abraham replied, “I will do what God has ordered me to do”,. Satan warned Isaac that he going to be killed, and offered to God.” Using this information, Isaac asked his father, where the sheep was to be killed. Abraham answered,” Don’t worry my son God will provide”. Satan tried three times to stop this, but Abraham went ahead to satisfy God’s plan. Abraham arranged the firewood on the alter, bundled Isaac with ropes, took the knife to dissect Isaac’s throat three times. Surprising, a metal ring was round the neck of Isaac which saved him from the thrusts of a knife which was softened unable to cut.Suddenly,his hand was caught by an angel, and the angel showed Abraham the sheep which was tied at the shrub. Isaac was saved and the sheep was offered instead.

Looking at this scenario:
1-Who saved Isaac?
2-The role played by God .Was it Good or bad?
3-The role played by Satan was it good or bad?
4-The role played by Isaac was it good or bad?
5-The role played by the Angel was it good or bad?

Note: Failure to diagnose a problem, that problem breeds other problems, which we are in today. Solutions to problems can be found if you know the causative agent. Human race will be saved. Think and Judge original. All answers are in culture and tradition.

By Bishop G.Mlalazi.
Donate now for this awakening to grow in all corners of the globe. Email us for more information.

Monday, 17 September 2012


CHUNUA ACHEBE ‘S (THE GREAT THINGS FALL APART) BOOK. The people of Umofia Land in Nigeria’s first Encounter with the Whiteman. One intelligent elder went to the visit Whiteman who had settled amongst them. “The people of the land want to know, the definition of your God.”Uchendu asked. The Whiteman answered, “There is one God. But in him, there is Godfather,Godson.and the Wholly spirit only.”  “He must have married a wife, to bear the Godson, Jesus!’  Uchendu reasoned. “No. God does not have a wife”. The Whiteman emphasized. Uchendu  queried using hand movements, ”Godfather, used his member to penetrate the vagina of his wife, in order to bear  his God son  .The husband stays onto of his wife during intercourse”. “No. The God father doesn’t have a wife”. The Whiteman maintained. Uchendu was convinced that the Whiteman was really mad because he did not know how children are borne.
Pass this message to your friends.
by Bishop G.Mlalazi


----- Forwarded Message -----
From: dilimazi chisi <>
To: Trevor Lund <>
Sent: Thursday, September 29, 2011 10:57 AM
Subject: Re: History

The religion which Jesus Christ was preaching was the ancient Egyptian religion(anscestral worshing) warning people that after death there is judgement."Don't be afraid of the people who kill the fresh but be afraid of the one who kills both the body and the heart.In the Judgement hierarchy ,there is no Jesus.Check the underworld Judgement in the Ancient Egyptian  Religion.Most of these present religions are forgeries.The most architect of this forgery is Paul ,the charlatan, under the leadership of the Roman Emperors then.Note the book of Simon Peter ,Mary Magdalene,ETC have been excluded because they contain vital information and the truth.So today we have people ,preachers who still continue to spreads such lies. 


 The Book of the Dead is the modern name of an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom (around 1550 BC) to around 50 BC.[1] The original Egyptian name for the text, transliterated rw nw prt m hrw[2] is translated as "Book of Coming Forth by Day".[3] Another translation would be "Book of emerging forth into the Light". The text consists of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person's journey through the Duat, or underworld, and into the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. Some of the spells included were drawn from these older works and date to the 3rd millennium BC. Other spells were composed later in Egyptian history, dating to the Third Intermediate Period (11th to 7th centuries BC).
There was no single or canonical Book of the Dead. The surviving papyri contain a varying selection of religious and magical texts and vary considerably in their illustration. Some people seem to have commissioned their own copies of the Book of the Dead, perhaps choosing the spells they thought most vital in their own progression to the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was most commonly written in hieroglyphic or hieratic script on a papyrus scroll, and often illustrated with vignettes depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased. A number of the spells which made up the Book were also inscribed on tomb walls and sarcophagi.


[edit] Development

Part of the Pyramid Texts, a precursor of the Book of the Dead, inscribed on the tomb of Teti
The Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom. The first funerary texts were the Pyramid Texts, first used in the Pyramid of King Unas of the 5th dynasty, around 2400 BC.[4] These texts were written on the walls of the burial chambers within pyramids, and were exclusively for the use of the Pharaoh (and, from the 6th dynasty, the Queen). The Pyramid Texts were written in an unusual hieroglyphic style; many of the hieroglyphs representing humans or animals were left incomplete or drawn mutilated, most likely to prevent them causing any harm to the dead pharaoh.[5] The purpose of the Pyramid Texts was to help the dead King take his place amongst the gods, in particular to reunite him with his divine father Ra; at this period the afterlife was seen as being in the sky, rather than the underworld described in the Book of the Dead.[5] Towards the end of the Old Kingdom, the Pyramid Texts ceased to be an exclusively royal privilege, and were adopted by regional governors and other high-ranking officials.
In the Middle Kingdom, a new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts. The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time. The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri.[5] The Coffin Texts were available to wealthy private individuals, vastly increasing the number of people who could expect to participate in the afterlife; a process which has been described as the "democratization of the afterlife".[6]
The Book of the Dead first developed in Thebes towards the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period, around 1700 BC. The earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep, of the 13th dynasty, where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts. Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance; for instance the rubric to spell 30B states that it was discovered by the Prince Hordjedef in the reign of King Menkaure, many hundreds of years before it is attested in the archaeological record.[7]
By the 17th dynasty, the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well. At this stage, the spells were typically inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though occasionally they are found written on coffins or on papyrus.[8]
The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. The famous Spell 125, the 'Weighing of the Heart', is first known from the reign of Hatshepsut and Tuthmose III, c.1475 BC. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes. During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text.[9] In the Third Intermediate Period, the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics. The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri. At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat.[10]
During the 25th and 26th dynasties, the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised. Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. This standardised version is known today as the 'Saite recension', after the Saite (26th) dynasty. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period, the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period. New funerary texts appeared, including the Book of Breathing and Book of Traversing Eternity. The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BC, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times.[11]

[edit] Spells

The mystical Spell 17, from the Papyrus of Ani. The vignette at the top illustrates, from left to right, the god Heh as a representation of the Sea; a gateway to the realm of Osiris; the Eye of Horus; the celestial cow Mehet-Weret; and a human head rising from a coffin, guarded by the four Sons of Horus.[12]
The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations. Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean mouth, speech, a chapter of a book, spell, utterance, or incantation. This ambiguity reflects the similarity in Egyptian thought between ritual speech and magical power.[13] In the context of the Book of the Dead, it is typically translated as either "chapter" or "spell". In this article, the word "spell" is used.
At present, some 192 spells are known,[14] though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: for instance, Spell 17, an obscure and lengthy description of the god Atum.[15] Others are incantations to ensure the different elements of the dead person's being were preserved and reunited, and to give the deceased control over the world around him. Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces, or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles. Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual.
Such spells as 26-30, and sometimes spells 6 and 126 relate to the heart, and were inscribed on scarabs.[16]
The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.[17] Indeed, there was little distinction for the Ancient Egyptians between magical and religious practice.[18] The concept of magic (heka) was also intimately linked with the spoken and written word. The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;[19] there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.[18] The magical power of words extended to the written word. Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth, and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful. Written words conveyed the full force of a spell.[19] This was even true when the text was abbreviated or omitted, as often occurred in later Book of the Dead scrolls, particularly if the accompanying images were present.[20] The Egyptians also believed that knowing the name of something gave power over it; thus, the Book of the Dead equips its owner with the mystical names of many of the entities he would encounter in the afterlife, giving him power of them.[21]
The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life. A number of spells are for magical amulets, which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.[17] Everyday magic made use of amulets in huge numbers. Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also be considered to have amuletic value.[22] A number of spells also refer to Egyptian beliefs about the magical healing power of saliva.[17]

[edit] Organization

Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available. For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure.[23] In fact, until Paul Barguet's 1967 "pioneering study" of common themes between texts,[24] Egyptologists concluded there was no internal structure at all.[25] It is only from the Saite period (26th dynasty) onwards that there is a defined order.[26]
The Books of the Dead from the Saite period tend to organize the Chapters into four sections:
  • Chapters 1–16 The deceased enters the tomb, descends to the underworld, and the body regains its powers of movement and speech.
  • Chapters 17–63 Explanation of the mythic origin of the gods and places, the deceased are made to live again so that they may arise, reborn, with the morning sun.
  • Chapters 64–129 The deceased travels across the sky in the sun ark as one of the blessed dead. In the evening, the deceased travels to the underworld to appear before Osiris.
  • Chapters 130–189 Having been vindicated, the deceased assumes power in the universe as one of the gods. This section also includes assorted chapters on protective amulets, provision of food, and important places.[25]

[edit] Egyptian concepts of death and afterlife

A depiction of the ba, an element of the soul
The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife. The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area.

[edit] Preservation

One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu, or modes of existence.[27] Funerary rituals served to re-integrate these different aspects of being. Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into a sah, an idealised form with divine aspects;[28] the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.[29] The heart, which was regarded as the aspect of being which included intelligence and memory, was also protected with spells, and in case anything happened to the physical heart, it was common to bury jewelled heart scarabs with a body to provide a replacement. The ka, or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense. In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell 105 ensured the ka was satisfied.[30] The name of the dead person, which constituted their individuality and was required for their continued existence, was written in many places throughout the Book, and spell 25 ensured the deceased would remember their own name.[31] The ba was a free-ranging spirit aspect of the deceased. It was the ba, depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.[32] Finally, the shut, or shadow of the deceased, was preserved by spells 91, 92 and 188.[33] If all these aspects of the person could be variously preserved, remembered, and satiated, then the dead person would live on in the form of an akh. An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods.[34]

[edit] Afterlife

The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion. In the Book of the Dead, the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris, who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.[35] As well as joining the Gods, the Book of the Dead also depicts the dead living on in the 'Field of Reeds', a paradisaical likeness of the real world.[36] The Field of Reeds is depicted as a lush, plentiful version of the Egypt of the living. There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead, a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents. While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti, or later ushebti. These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead, requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.[37] It is also clear that the dead not only went to a place where the gods lived, but that they acquired divine characteristics themselves. In many occasions, the deceased is mentioned as "The Osiris - [Name]" in the Book of the Dead.

Two 'gate spells'. On the top register, Ani and his wife face the 'seven gates of the House of Osiris'. Below, they encounter ten of the 21 'mysterious portals of the House of Osiris in the Field of Reeds'. All are guarded by unpleasant protectors.[38]
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.[39] These terrifying entities were armed with enormous knives and are illustrated in grotesque forms, typically as human figures with the heads of animals or combinations of different ferocious beasts. Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.[40] Another breed of supernatural creatures was 'slaughterers' who killed the unrighteous on behalf of Osiris; the Book of the Dead equipped its owner to escape their attentions.[41] As well as these supernatural entities, there were also threats from natural or supernatural animals, including crocodiles, snakes, and beetles.[42]

[edit] Judgement

The Weighing of the Heart ritual, shown in the Book of the Dead of Sesostris
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the Weighing of the Heart ritual, depicted in Spell 125. The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris. There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins,[43] reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession". Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Ma'at, who embodied truth and justice. Ma'at was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name.[44] At this point, there was a risk that the deceased's heart would bear witness, owning up to sins committed in life; Spell 30B guarded against this eventuality. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life. Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru, meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".[45] If the heart was out of balance with Ma'at, then another fearsome beast called Ammit, the Devourer, stood ready to eat it and put the dead person's afterlife to an early and unpleasant end.[46]
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the only parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgement of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society. For every "I have not..." in the Negative Confession, it is possible to read an unexpressed "Thou shalt not".[47] While the Ten Commandments of Judaeo-Christian ethics are rules of conduct laid down by divine revelation, the Negative Confession is more a divine enforcement of everyday morality.[48] Views differ among Egyptologists about how far the Negative Confession represents a moral absolute, with ethical purity being necessary for progress to the Afterlife. John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and 125 suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.[46] Ogden Goelet says "without an exemplary and moral existence, there was no hope for a successful afterlife",[47] while Geraldine Pinch suggests that the Negative Confession is essentially similar to the spells protecting from demons, and that the success of the Weighing of the Heart depended on the mystical knowledge of the true names of the judges rather than on the deceased's moral behaviour.[49]

[edit] Producing a Book of the Dead

Part of the Book of the Dead of Pinedjem II. The text is hieratic, except for hieroglyphics in the vignette. The use of red pigment, and the joins between papyrus sheets, are also visible

A close-up of the Papyrus of Ani, showing the cursive hieroglyphs of the text
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased. They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,[50] perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.[51] Papyrus itself was evidently costly, as there are many instances of its re-use in everyday documents, creating palimpsests. In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus.[52]
Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials. Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead, there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman. However, during the Third Intermediate Period, 2/3 were for women; and women owned roughly a third of the hieratic paypri from the Late and Ptolemaic Periods.[53]
The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. They are composed of sheets of papyrus joined together, the individual papyri varying in width from 15 cm to 45 cm. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets. The words peret em heru, or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label.[52]
Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.[54] For instance, in the Papyrus of Ani, the name "Ani" appears at the top or bottom of a column, or immediately following a rubric introducing him as the speaker of a block of text; the name appears in a different handwriting to the rest of the manuscript, and in some places is mis-spelt or omitted entirely.[51]
The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs, most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left. The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines - a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments. Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.[55]
From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in in horizontal lines across wide columns (often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up). Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic.
The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script. Most of the text was in black, with red used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.[56] The black ink used was based on carbon, and the red ink on ochre, in both cases mixed with water.[57]
The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf. Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening.[58]
Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.[52] It is usually possible to identify the style of more than one scribe used on a given manuscript, even when the manuscript is a shorter one.[59] The text and illustrations were produced by different scribes; there are a number of Books where the text was completed but the illustrations were left empty.[60]

[edit] Discovery, translation, interpretation and preservation

Karl Richard Lepsius, first translator of a complete Book of the Dead manuscript
The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. Since it was found in tombs, it was evidently a document of a religious nature, and this led to the widespread misapprehension that the Book of the Dead was the equivalent of a Bible or Qu'ran.[61]
The first modern facsimile of a Book of the Dead was produced in 1805 and included in the Description de l'Égypte produced by the staff of Napoleon's expedition to Egypt. In 1822, Jean Francois Champollion began to translate hieroglyphic text; he examined some of the Book of the Dead papyri and identified them as a funerary ritual.[62]
In 1842 Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name "Book of The Dead". He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying 165 different spells.[14] Lepsius promoted the idea of a comparative edition of the Book of the Dead, drawing on all relevant manuscripts. This project was undertaken by Edouard Naville, starting in 1875 and completed in 1886, producing a three-volume work including a selection of vignettes for every one of the 186 spells he worked with, the variations of the text for every spell, and commentary. In 1876, Samuel Birch of the British Museum published a photographic copy of the papyrus of Nebseny.[63]
The work of E. A. Wallis Budge, Birch's successor at the British Museum, is still in wide circulation - including both his hieroglyphic editions and his English translations, though the latter are now considered inaccurate and out-of-date.[64] More recent translations in English have been published by T. G. Allen (1974) and Raymond O. Faulkner (1972).[65] As more work has been done on the Book of the Dead, more spells have been identified, and the total now stands at 192.[14]
Research work on the Book of the Dead has always posed technical difficulties thanks to the need to copy very long hieroglyphic texts. Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. In the mid-19th century, hieroglyphic fonts became available and made lithographic reproduction of manuscripts more feasible. In the present day, hieroglyphics can be rendered in desktop publishing software and this, combined with digital print technology, means that the costs of publishing a Book of the Dead may be considerably reduced. However, a very large amount of the source material in museums around the world remains unpublished.[66]
Notable rock band The Grateful Dead purportedly were reading over a translation of parts of the Book of the Dead when they came across the phrases, "We now return our souls to the creator, as we stand on the edge of eternal darkness. Let our chant fill the void in order that others may know. In the land of the night the ship of the sun is drawn by the grateful dead." The name stuck